The following topic areas are the most basic concepts that a sucessful chemistry student needs to master:
Chemical Nomenclature(this unit required for credit)
Download hand made notes on Polarity Effects here
Polarity of Organic Molecules
Examples of Electronic Effects
Partial polarity within a molecule leads to electron transfer among the atoms in a molecule, leading to different behavior than what would be expected in a non-polar version of the compound, where no sections were electron-rich or electron-deficient.
Saturated hydrocarbons are nonreactive because there is no polarity in bond and practically no polarity in bonds. Carbon and hydrogen are almost identical in electronegativity, so the electrons involved in a bond between the two atoms are equally attracted to each nucleus and spend roughly the same amount of time orbiting one as the other.
Electron density is evenly distributed between the two atoms in a non-polar bond, which prevents charged species including from attacking or altering the bond. In contrast, charged species (electrophiles and nucleophiles) react with polar organic molecules because there is an imbalance in electron density or polarity.
Elements with higher electronegativity, including oxygen and the halide group, can change the electron density around an organic molecule and make the molecule more reactive.
Electronic effects complicate chemical reactions, and they can stabilize a molecule, make a compound less volatile, make a molecule more likely to react in a desired fashion, or affect the acidity or basicity. Understanding the factors involved in electronic imbalance is vital for understanding the underlying mechanisms of a chemical reaction, predicting the products of a reaction, and predicting organic molecules' behavior.