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Terms of Free Ions with dn Configurations

! The usual notation for electronic configurations (e.g., 3d2) does not tell us which specific orbitals are occupied, except when a degenerate set of orbitals is half filled or fully filled.
! Except for a fully filled subshell, we rarely presume to know which of the two possible spin states individual electrons have (ms = ±½).

Example:  There are ten ways of arranging the single electron in the configuration nd 1 (n = 3, 4, 5, ...)
The number of possible arrangements increases greatly with additional electrons.



Electron Arrangements for nd 2 (Same Spins)

Consider the 20 possible ways of arranging electrons for the configuration nd2 (n = 3, 4, 5, ...), in which the two electrons have the same spins (both ms = +½ or ms = –½) :



Microstates

! Each set of individual ml and ms values constitutes a microstate of the configuration.
! Some microstates may be allowable arrangements in the ground state, and others may be allowable arrangements in some higher-energy excited state.
! With additional electrons the number of microstates rises dramatically.
! For any allowed number of electrons in a set of degenerate orbitals
(called equivalent electrons), the number of possible microstates is given by





author

DESH DEEPAK A P S CHAUHAN

M.Sc. CHEMISTRY!

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